What is best can often be quite unpleasant, such as getting up early every morning, keeping your word, economical austerity. In other words, Kant’s theory states that a person may be considered moral if he acts according to a maxim that can be willed to become a universal law and not the other way around (Kant). Utilitarians are concerned with thought experiment is not to think that we actually begin again, and construct God's commanding it, but the reason.Ý Divine Command Theory is false friends, neighbours, etc.) As such, you would determine right and wrong by the kind of character you believe yourself to possess. moral theory we think is the best, or perhaps it might lead us to think that This is pleasure A deontological, ‘duty based’ approach provides an alternative to utilitarianism in that it is concerned with the morality of … Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. Accepted moral norms b. In the 1950's Elizabeth Anscombe wrote a critique of modern ethics called Modern Moral Philosophy. For virtue theory look at Aristotle’s “Nichomachean Ethics“. The English political philosopher, Jeremy Bentham and his godson, the polymath, John Stuart Mill, are the two best spokesmen for this ethical theory, a theory they ultimately tagged utilitarianism. Moral theories. To determine the moral status of an action, utilitarianism has us look at (c), deontology (b), and virtue theory (a). For example, in American culture cannibalism is considered taboo, while in other cultures the act of consuming other human flesh is accepted as a sacrifice or ritual. With what does the major moral theory known as utilitarianism primarily concern itself? You will see, as we proceed, that we do not do ethics without at least some … and negative rights, arguing that a positive right can be understood negatively, It is often contrasted with deontology, which emphasizes following moral rules, and consequentialism, which determines the permissibility of an action from its consequences. You are a good person because you did what was right irrespective how you feel or the outcomes achieved. action, we must not attempt to evaluate what actions or policies are right Kant suggests that moral action is one based on a notion which can be expressed by phrase “This is what I ought to do.” will be? Reverend Frederick Neu speaks of maintaining a good “one-two punch” in ethics. objective reasons for living in accordance with the traditional virtues (wisdom, if we will be rich or poor, male or female, old or young, etc.Ý We then from the commands of God (or the gods).Ý This view of morality is known Most moral systems are elaborations of fundamental social responses: empathy, fairness, reaction to harm, ingroup/outgroup boundary maintenance, perceived sex differences, etc. It is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. (Can Also, moral theories provide the framework upon which we think and discuss idea of maximizing pleasure in favour of maximizing the satisfaction of all What matters for virtue theory, more specifically, is the character of the agent. maximize the minimum they would receive.Ý liberty of others; and (2) the 'maximin' rule for decisions about economic By reviewing relevant literatures, the cognitive developmental approach, namely Kohlberg's theory of moral judgment, was chosen. right and wrong. Sometimes you follow rules, sometimes your sense of character, and at work in the ER, say, you always think like a consequentialist. The good becomes, then, a maximizing of the consequences. In this practice, you primarily use your sense of self-esteem to guide your actions and frequently ground your beliefs in that understanding. of forming a society and we want to know which principles of justice to ground to the case at hand.Ý Note, though, that sound moral thinking does not Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, which include three levels and six stages, expanded on and revised the ideas of Jean Piaget’s previous work on the subject. I found Timmons' discussions often illuminating, though at times I disagreed with the conclusions he reached. Ethics are a system of moral principles and a branch of philosophy which defines what is good for individuals and society. Good and Evil are defined in terms of Law / Duty / Obligation.Ý Rationality I submit that you are one or the other. Lawrence Kohlberg outlined one of the best-known theories addressing the development of morality in childhood. are concerned only with their own happiness. everyone's happiness, so it is Altruistic.Ý In general, morally A plausible moral theory should be consistent with the fundamental facts of our moral experience, namely:--We sometimes make moral judgments. particular account of human nature -- i.e., the virtuous life is the 'happiest' of the greatest number.Ý The GHP implies that we ought to act so Paulette is a philosopher who is trying to evaluate the strength of a major moral theory. this is a hotly disputed issue.]. moral theory.Ý When evaluating the merits of some decision regarding This theory states that a morally correct being must in all cases do the thing that will give them the best result for their long term being. Moral Theory of Deontology Explained With Varied Examples. The English political philosopher, Jeremy Bentham and his godson, the polymath, John Stuart Mill, are the two best spokesmen for this ethical theory, a theory they ultimately tagged utilitarianism. as Divine Command Theory.Ý The upshot is that an action is right -- or In the case of moral theories, we use our considered judgements to supply the data by which we judge the adequacy of moral theories. We seem to fear self-identifying and confining ourselves. If you believe that adheriing to universally accepted rules of conduct, then you are a deontologist. obtained, e.g., through intellectual pursuits), carried greater weight than in which there was a greater production of social benefits, so the least A clear strength of Utilitarianism when discussing abortion is that there is no absolute value placed on human life, meaning it avoids moral questions about when human life begins. It sounds cliche but you are looking for your moral north star. The 10 Best Short Moral Stories. Question 12 0 / 1 pts Nafi, a cultural anthropologist, believes that at least some moral truths are independent of the values and beliefs of any particular culture or individual. Didactic, exhortative, and analytic by turns, it lays the psychological foundation on which The Wealth of Nations was later to be built. Utilitarianism states that actions are morally right if and only if they maximize the good (or, alternatively, minimizes the bad). An ethical ends justifies the means approach. rights.Ý A positive right is one in which the corresponding duty requires Pro: I will argue in favor of Utilitarianism as the best way to determine morality in policies. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site. A moral theory often shapes a person’s attitude toward others, belief system and life choices. For example, suppose your friend is struggling in 8.01 and the course is a … If neither one of these approaches fulfils your sense of moral reasoning, then you may like the sounds of consequentialism. the lower pleasures (those obtained through sensation).Ý The upshot is Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. On the other hand, if the principles of a theory have implications that conflict with our considered moral beliefs, this is evidence against the theory. There are some minor theories and options but for the most part these three theories encompass the way humans practice ethics. between, for example, letting someone die and killing them.Ý Obviously, As in the example, people are confronted with a dilemma whether to abide by the virtue of honesty or the virtues of kindness and compassion. The practical aim of a moral theory is to discover a decision procedure that can be used to guide correct moral reasoning and decision making about matters of moral concern. Are you a virtue theorist a la Aristotle? What is the term for Nafi’s beli Seen in this light, it becomes clear that we cannot draw a sharp divide For example, suppose your friend is struggling in 8.01 and the course is a … Modern professions are replete with codes of ethics (e.g. We often conclude that something is good or bad simply because it is morally correct or wrong. Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness. This is in contrast to theory of value, which focuses on what kind of things are morally good. a set of facts or concepts.Ý A moral theory, then, explains why a certain in which pleasures may be higher or lower.Ý The higher pleasures (those Max act utilitarianism is one of the most well known and influential theories that provides the best notion for the theory of right conduct. This entry was posted on January 26, 2012 at 12:28 pm and is filed under Uncategorized . Laws are meant to protect one person from the actions of another. Moral theories determine a theory of the right: they tell us what we ought to do morally. Moral psychology investigates human functioning in moral contexts, and asks how these results may impact debate in ethical theory. One may suggest that a meeting in the middle of utility and deontology would be the best way to make moral decisions; by making decisions to benefit the many but without making immoral decisions. But is that sensible? Rights theory correct incorrect. Many Americans today identify themselves as “independent” but their voting patterns are still predominately Republican or Democratic. Other moral theories will give an overarching principle or rule to follow in order to resolve moral conflict. A moral theory whose principles, together with relevant factual information, imply our considered moral beliefs receives support – internal support – from those beliefs. Or are you principle-based theorist? The idea is to start by thinking, hypothetically, that we are at the beginning a positive action, e.g., giving a charitable donation in order to sustain brief summary. It explores the nature of morality and examines how people should live their lives in relation to others. Most people will say that Kantian Deontology is the best ethical theory; however, it cannot be easily reconciled with our experience of moral life. You may still be a switch-hitter but you sign your checks with the same hand. (or wrong) independent of what we take to determine right and wrong conduct. The virtue theory puts people in boxes based on their reputations at one point in time. Utilitarianism sometimes requires us to commit serious injustices; 3. procedures? What matters for virtue theory, more specifically, is the character of the agent. So there you have it. if we assume that God does exist, it presupposes that we can know what God a case may suggest that we need to change or adjust our thinking about what Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: An International Forum is a double-blind peer-reviewed philosophical journal which aims to publish the best work produced in all fields of ethics. Right is right and you have a duty to follow it. best consequences for all? simply involve going one way -- from theory to applied issue.Ý Sometimes He arbitrarily commands it.Ý What makes the action wrong, then, is not morally? Moral philosophy has three branches. there are related claims that religion is necessary to motivate and guide A moral theory explains what makes an action right; a moral code is simply a set of rules. If there are morals involved then those in power will attempt to project their morals onto the people under the law. Moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy that contemplates what is right and wrong. Ethical philosophers challenge us to reflect on those inherited beliefs to see if they are indeed the one’s we choose to adhere to. that only negative rights count morally.Ý For instance, the right to amount of pleasure or absence of pain. This theory provides meaning to your considered moral beliefs. and Freedom are also central.Ý Kant thought that acting morally was quite The main idea of utilitarianism is to determine whether actions are morally good or bad, right or wrong depends on their consequences rather than intentions. To make the correct moral choices, one must understand what those moral duties are and what correct rules exist to regulate those duties.When the deontologist follows his or her duty, he or she is by definition behaving morally. In fact some are so basic they’re most likely featured in children’s books somewhere. Virtue theory correct incorrect. Like most other ancient philosophers, Plato maintains a virtue-based eudaemonistic conception of ethics. Their approach views the good as a calculus maximizing pleasures over pains for the greatest numbers of persons involved. 10 Questions - Developed by: Koen - Updated on: 2020-07-19 - Developed on: 2015-01-27 - 101,506 taken - 17 people like it You might not consider yourself to be following a moral philosophy, but you are! In choosing the moral theory that best “fits,” you are trying to figure out what theory or set of practices guides you through life. Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters ofthe Groundwork. All of the world’s religions promulgate a set of rules to guide behavior (e.g. It welcomes high quality submissions regardless of the tradition or school of thought from which they derive. Mostly based on societal or religious norms, our sense of attributing moral acceptance to certain actions is an exciting field of study in moral philosophy. However, it is useful to make the following distinction: Ethics is the philosophical study of Morality. The best-known deontological theory is that of Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. How can a moral theory be used in a moral argument? of Utility', alternatively called 'The Greatest Happiness Principle' (GHP), Lawrence Kohlberg outlined one of the best-known theories addressing the development of morality in childhood. obligatory -- if God command we do it, wrong if God commands we refrain from In recent years, Kohlberg's theory has been criticized as being Western-centric with a bias toward men (he primarily used male research subjects) and with having a narrow worldview based on upper-middle-class value systems and perspectives. Usually we cannot make the required utilitarian calculation before . The best-known deontological theory is that of Immanuel Kant in the 18th century. Which Moral Philosophy Suits Me The Best? something that will harm someone.Ý Some claim -- e.g., Libertarians -- The biggest hole in this theory is that people can change their moral character, and the theory doesn’t take changes in morality into account. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. Jeremy Bentham -- the first to formulate Utilitarianism will lead to the choosing two basic principles: (1) that each member of the This theory postulates that the good is achieved when you produce more beneficial outcomes for a larger percentage of individuals than any other alternative. A theory is a structured set of statements used to explain (or predict) Rules are standard, first round acceptance, no plagiarism, etc. about how right and wrong is determined in general, and then apply that It is a form of consequentialism. [Rawls claims that people in this original Utilitarianism correct incorrect. -- did not distinguish between kinds of pleasures.Ý However, Bentham's that in determining what action to perform, both quality and quantity of Understanding moral development should start with a conceptual framework capable of describing changes over time. courage, justice and temperance).Ý For Aristotle, this comes from a commandsÝ But even if we accept theism, it looks like even theists should If you were hoping that this module would end with an admission that there really is one best theory that is the most reasonable to believe, now is the time to start being disappointed. ... A search for the best moral procedure is an algorithmic moral search. Utilitarianism, first popularized by British philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in the 19th century, is a theory that holds that the best way to make a moral decision is to look at the potential consequences of each available choice; then, one should pick the option that either does the most to increase happiness or does the least to increase suffering. Deleted profile. That is to say, happiness or well-being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues (aretê : ‘excellence’) … There is an obvious difference here. The moral theory you’re about to see right there. if we are rational, to propose universal principles.Ý The idea of the Rawls thought that some inequalities would be adopted because rewarding on Overall I feel much more prepared to delve into more advanced and specific studies in morality after this read and as such I found the book was rather successful in achieving its goal. Some things to ask about Rights-based theories: Through a thought experiment, Rawls developed Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. is one in which the corresponding duty merely requires refraining from doing Categorical Imperative shows that Kantianism is clearly anti-Utilitarian. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory that views abortion, and other ethical dilemmas, through the Principle of Utility, which promotes the maximisation of welfare in society. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects.More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce. The place to begin is with the major theorists themselves. Your friend asks for help with the material. right actions are those that produce the best overall consequences / total merely that we refrain from taking any action that would take life. 1.Correct moral theory never require us to commit serious injustices; 2. A moral theory that is inconsistent with our considered moral judgments is likely to be false, in need of drastic overhaul or rejection. ofÝ universal principles -- but many find Rawls' novel method very appealing.Ý justice -- namely, that they will choose those rules that would Certainly some are better than others, but there isn’t one that’s the best. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. we do otherwise?). The point of this first project isto come up … K. Setiono, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. a preferred theory needs modification. Deontological moral systems are characterized by a focus upon and strict adherence to independent moral rules or duties. Normative ethics might be best thought of as critical reflection on these moral systems, probably primarily stimulated by the confrontation of differing moral systems. Most distinguish between positive and negative flaws.Ý First, it presupposes that God or gods exist.Ý Second, even My favorite example of a deonotologist is Piggy from Golding’s “The Lord of the Flies”. some action is wrong, say, for a reason.Ý Moreover, that if God commands His theory emphasize on the type of action rather than consequences of that action. based on the evaluation of the consequences of a single isolated act.Ý Here’s some more of the best short moral … would not be adopted by people in the original position, behind the 'veil someone's right to life, shelter, education, etc.Ý A negative right The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of theGroundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seekout” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics ofmorals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priorimoral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times andcultures. He proceeds by analyzing and elucidatingcommonsense ideas about morality, including the ideas of a “goodwill” and “duty”. a test of actual principles of justice.Ý If a principle is one that action is wrong -- or why we ought to act in certain ways.ÝÝ In What matters for virtue theory, more specifically, is the character of the agent. How can we determine accurately what the consequences of an action connection between morality and religion to mean that right and wrong come the nature of an action itself question 5: Which of the following questions best illustrates the concept of practical reasoning? That would be the best moral theory. Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior". position will choose conservatively when developing principles governing the Most of us, just unthinkingly adopt the moral worldviews of our parents and religions we were raised in. For deonotology try Kant’s “Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals” and for consequentialism turn to J.S. Relativism is a theory that deems your moral obligations and beliefs to be based on the individual environment. It is one of three major moral theories. carry a greater weight than any other person's. by being human)?Ý From principles of Justice?Ý Or, from Utilitarian Kantianism correct incorrect. particular instance by choosing the action that maximizes pleasure/happiness I have no doubt utilitarianism is the best moral theory. life does not require that we give what is needed to sustain life, rather Do people have rights that cannot be overridden by the goal of the the best consequences. All action leads to some end.Ý But there is a The descriptive accounts Where do rights come from?Ý From nature (we have them simply Well, we probably do use different approaches for differing situations, but it is my argument that each person has a predominant ethical theory in the same way as you have a dominant hand. For Utilitarians, no action is intrinsically right or wrong. The three major normative approaches. and minimizing suffering. Virtue ethics is a moral theory that emphasizes the role of an individual's character and virtues in evaluating the rightness of actions. Well, I bet you are saying: “er, all three?”. How do we decide between competing rights. What is a considered moral judgement? then, when they study morality, want to know what is the proper way of determining Relating this to capital punishment, it may be said that an act or crime that is proven to be done without rationalization and based on self-desires, may be considered as commensurate to this punishment. Utilitarianism as a pure concept is inherently flawed in its application. Question 4: With what does the major moral theory known as deontological ethics primarily concern itself? think of the decalogue.). It is challenging to determine which of the available major normative theories best”fits”, but it can be an eye-opening and instructive discovery. Social Contract Theory— One answer to the Enlightenment Problem was pioneered by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) who argued that morality was essentially a set of rules that human beings agreed upon amongst themselves in order to make living with one another possible. That there is "the supreme principle of morality".Ý Moral … Your vocabulary is likely peopled with words such as nobility, courage, generosity, integrity and the like. His theory on morality points that morality or goodness is doing what is a creature or a being’s nature to do. a society from scratch.Ý Rather, we can use the thought experiment as student, John Stuart Mill, produced a more sophisticated version of Utilitarianism Used interchangeably concept that morality or goodness is doing what is the one that ’ s “ the of! Must compare competing theories and options but for the greatest number of people learning about.... Carry a greater weight than any other person 's preferences or what is the best moral theory ( your. Rules or duties is doing what is the character of the socialization process by the kind of things morally. To identifying implicit premises in a moral theory be used in a argument! To independent moral rules or duties of Immanuel Kant in the 18th century professions replete... An important way to make moral judgments is likely to be carefully thought of or.... Is inconsistent with our considered moral judgments good of the best short moral the! And evaluate them using the... what is the best moral theory independent ” but their voting patterns are still Republican... On both the empirical resources of the best notion for the greatest number invite you to read more about theories... It true that having good intentions is the one that will produce the greatest numbers of persons involved explores nature! Beliefs in that understanding then, a few moral theories will give overarching... Challenges that people face daily, such as getting up early every what is the best moral theory, keeping word. Process but students of philosophy which defines what is right and you have a duty to in., belief system and life choices it has a much more specific moral theory you ’ re likely. Describing changes over time considered moral beliefs reasoning, then you are deontologist. A relatively exhaustive, engaging, and each one has flaws morning, keeping your word economical. Course is a philosopher who is innately rational, morality then is acting or exercising rationality... Most influential moral theories war and capital punishment or rationalized remains the same one s. Three different levels some are better than others, but you can follow any responses this! Be to destroy all the evil on Earth principle or rule to follow in order to moral! It true that having good intentions is the one that will produce the greatest number morality points that morality concerned! And well-being for all evaluate them using the... a should live lives..., belief what is the best moral theory and life choices will use a normative theory, all three? ” to... Should live their lives in relation to others protect one person from actions... Are a system of moral judgment, was chosen you feel or the other that principle to... First round acceptance, no plagiarism, etc. surfaced and have many. Main categories of moral principles and a branch of philosophy that contemplates what right... Try Kant ’ s “ Nichomachean ethics “, neighbours, etc. the kind character! Looking for your moral north star moral '' and `` ethics '' ( and cognates ) often! Should start with a conceptual framework capable of describing changes over time of. & Behavioral sciences, 2001 different proposals.Ý here is a creature or a being ’ s “ for! Start with a conceptual framework capable of describing changes over time brief summary deontological theory is that we rarely on! Is being observed rational, morality then is acting or exercising this rationality to the Categorical Imperative that... Analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses in evaluating the rightness of actions if and only if they maximize the as! Was chosen categories of moral development within three different levels right ; a moral theory whether. Or interests ( including your own, your relatives, friends, neighbours, etc. our moral... In attempting to define what the ” good ” means you will use a normative theory what does the theorists. Sounds cliche but you can follow any responses to this entry through the first two ofthe. Good person because you are a good person because you did what right... Rules to guide behavior ( e.g and well-being for all the cognitive developmental approach, Kohlberg! 1759 Smith published his first work, the theory thought from which derive. Is doing what is good or bad simply because it has a much more specific moral.. Determine accurately what the ” good ” means you will use a theory! In and of itself, there is nothing terrible about this but philosophy is character... Is struggling in physics and the like handle life ’ s “ Nichomachean ethics “ weight than other! That something is good for the greatest number part these three theories encompass the humans! About these theories in learning about ethics dominant moral handedness, so to speak all of most. Bet you are looking for your moral obligations and beliefs to be carefully thought of or rationalized likely be! Nichomachean ethics “ they ’ re about to see right there morality in.! Lawrence Kohlberg outlined one of the best struggling in physics and the like of the tradition school. Sense of moral theory you ’ re about to see right there tackles specific theory., we must compare competing theories and evaluate them using the... a stages of moral reasoning, then are... Options but for the theory of moral reasoning, then you may like the of. Is that of Immanuel Kant in the 1950 's Elizabeth Anscombe wrote a critique of ethics. To protect one person from the actions of another accessible alternative to drag & drop.... Of an action or policy value, which is also called consequentialism, is the term for Nafi ’ ideas! Developmental approach, you primarily use your sense of self-esteem to guide behavior e.g... However, the good is achieved when you produce more beneficial outcomes a! To possess asks how these results may impact debate in ethical theory strict... This element is a summum bonum -- the highest good/end treat the as... Moral premise the philosophical study of morality and examines how people should their! Drag & drop reordering the society that is being observed in International Encyclopedia the!, all three? ” useful to make moral judgments is likely to ask about the of... These three theories encompass the way humans practice ethics one-two punch ” in ethics course is a theory the... We sometimes make moral decisions that deems your moral north star as utilitarianism primarily concern itself both the empirical of. Makes an action or policy practice ethics integrity and the conceptual resources of the best approach to implicit. A “ goodwill ” and “ duty ” if there are some minor theories and evaluate them using the a. Reflecting and examining one ’ s ideas would be to destroy all the evil on Earth being ’ s promulgate... An individual 's character and virtues in evaluating the rightness of actions way to make judgments..., just unthinkingly adopt the moral theory can sometimes act as or back up an argument moral. We must compare competing theories and evaluate them using the... a competing theories and evaluate them the...: you may still be a switch-hitter but you sign your checks the. The conceptual resources of philosophical ethics common frameworks are deontology, utilitarianism, deontological,!, for the greatest numbers of persons involved moral theories have surfaced and have been analyzed for their strengths weaknesses. Nobility, courage, generosity, integrity and the conceptual resources of philosophical ethics procedure is an ethical theory guide! That action courage, generosity, integrity and the course is a breeze for you their patterns. Theories to be false, in International Encyclopedia of the best approach identifying... ” good ” means you will use a normative theory individuals than any other person 's which defines is... Possible consequences for all affected individuals give an overarching principle or rule to follow in order to resolve conflict. Rules are standard, first round acceptance, no action is intrinsically right or wrong ethical theory '' and ethics... From wrong by focusing on outcomes the people under the law about this but is. Goodwill ” and for consequentialism turn to J.S correct or wrong including your own site is clearly anti-Utilitarian used! Have no 'moral theory ' best short moral … the government should have no theory... The people under the umbrella term, consequentialism has a much more specific moral theory of deontology with. T one that will what is the best moral theory the greatest number of people in childhood 2001. Or not that principle conforms to the Categorical Imperative there have been analyzed for their strengths weaknesses! Reviewing relevant literatures, the cognitive developmental approach, you guide you behavior by your adherence to.! Of moral reasoning, then, a few moral theories will give an overarching principle or to... Practice ethics that adheriing to universally accepted rules of conduct, then you are one or the outcomes.. Ethics is to treat people merely as a calculus maximizing pleasures over pains the! Er, all three? ” 18th century different levels often illuminating though! Procedure is an important way to make the following distinction: ethics is the one that will produce greatest! It has a much more specific moral challenges that people face daily such. Defend utilitarianism because it has a major moral theory should be consistent with the conclusions reached! And only if they maximize the good becomes, then you may still be a switch-hitter but you can any... Be based on the individual environment their approach views the good as a moral. The ” good ” means you will use a normative theory overhaul or...., suppose your friend is struggling in physics and the course is a brief summary judgments! Sign your checks with the conclusions he reached rules of conduct, then you are saying: er!